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Effective Date: Reinstatement of HUD’s Discriminatory Effects Standard


Office of the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).


Final rule.


The Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, or financing of dwellings and in other housing-related activities. This prohibition extends to practices with an unjustified discriminatory effect, regardless of whether there was an intent to discriminate. In 2013, HUD published a rule which formalized a burden-shifting test for determining whether a given practice has an unjustified discriminatory effect. In 2020, HUD published a rule that would have altered the standards set forth in the 2013 rule. However, a preliminary injunction prevented the 2020 rule from ever going into effect. On June 25, 2021, HUD published a proposed rule to recodify the 2013 rule. After considering public comments, HUD in this final rule reinstates and maintains the 2013 rule and rescinds the 2020 rule.


Effective: May 1, 2023.

  • May 1, 2023
  • Time: All Day